Chap 2.18

To Arjuna’s query about why he should engage in this war which appeared as if he is doing wrong by killing his grandfather and teacher etc. Krishna replies taking if from

a)the thought process of Arjuna is flawed. So he should start thinking in a proper way.

One should not think of the deha as the permanent and that it is temporary. Then he said that the excessive attachment to the pleasures and the excessive despise of the negative expereinces

Which are all eternal are discussed . There he discusses the kalataha vyaapti and deshataha vyApti and finally states that those that are deshataha vyaapti will definitely be kalatah vyaapti. The other way is not true . An eternal thing like the jiva has vyapti in time but definitely not in space. While the space which exists everywhere is there for all time. The Veda, akshara,varna etc are also in all space at all times and hence are also eternal and all pervading. This all pervading entities are stated before as Asatmeaning Prakruthi-primordial matter. and “sat” -Paramatma.

Then one more question comes into being – Why should anyone at all pray to God?After all if the jiva is himself nitya then why should he pray or do work /seva to Paramatma. That is answered here. Jivas are not just aswatantra but, they have deha haani and dukha praapti, so the jiva beseeches the Bhagavantha who is not just vyapta in kala and desha  but  is free from any dosha (vivdavaada dosha-swaroopa naasha,deha naasha, dukha praapti and apornata) and who has compassion and will uplift the jiva.

antavanta ime dehah nityasyOkta shareerinah

anAshina apramEya tasmaat yudhasva bhArata

“These bodies are all perishable but the one who has dorned the body is definitely eternal-nitya. So you as the jiva should perform the knowing well that Paramatma is flawless, lossless and infinite.

This extends to all jivas that all work should be done to serve Krishna the flawless.

Here the the question of the body being the vehicle for the jiva is destroyed so what is the jiva is also destroyed. That does not happen. The jiva being different from the body is definitely existing. How so ? It is because the jiva is a reflextion of the Paramatma . In that case the jiva should have a reflecting medium in which it is getting reflected. Here the reflecting medium is the jiva’s swaroopa which is nitya. This is quite complex and the a new concept .In the world the mirror is the reflector and the image is jada. Here both a chetana which is the jiva.

Now there are two possible ways in which the jiva can become non-existent.

1)IF the reflecting medium is destroyed

2) IF the object is moved away from the reflecting medium then also.

But in this case,both are not possilbe as the jiva is the reflecting medium and that has already been stated that it is eternal. Then the second objection is handled. Paramatma is “avinAshi” there is no place where He does not pervade in His infiniteness. Hence there is no question of the separation of the soul’s swaroopa from Paramatma who is always everythere. So this pratibimba of God is unique and eternal.

Now the two words ‘anAshino apramEya” are mainly implied for God while it is implied for the jiva in a limited way.

Acharyaru states and re-affirms that there is no physical body that is free from death. Howsoever great or big the swaroopa is it still has only a perishable body. For that the shloka starts with antavanta ime deha. Then the word nityasya qualifies the eternality of the one in the body- Here the sharira- which means sheeryate iti shareera and also that this eternality of the jiva is dependent as it is a reflection of the Paramatma.

the term nitya is being given to the shareerinah whose deha is destroyed ,yet the soul lives on. How so ? It is because it is the reflection of the Supreme nitya and hence obtains the name “nitya too. The word shareerinah clearly shows the lack of independence of the jiva in obtaining a body or discarding it and suffer from sorrow. This is quite obvious and is seen in that situation as well as from the standpoint of any person in samsaara.There are many many jivas and all of them are eternal. And jiva does not pervade all space or all gunas is seen from this. This clearly shows that the jiva is dependent and this quite an obvious fact .

So the independent who is the controller should be understood and the war should be fought because that is the right method to propitate Him by whose grace the dukha nivritti, desha naasha etc can be over.

So then who is the one who gives it this body is stated as “nitya” Paramatma who is “anAshi apramEya”. He is lossless and never has any loss of any type and is limitless-apramEya. These words can be given to jiva in a limited way only and is said so only because the jiva is the reflection. ”

Another line of thought:

If any proposesthat ,if not all these dehas but somewhere if there is a body which will not perish, then to that the answers comes ‘anta vanta ime deha…’

Those who have “deha”‘s which have the roop word ‘to be nourished-diha upachaya” will definitely perish . There is no question of a person who has a created body which needs to be nourished in some to survivie anywhere ever.

Then there is one more objection-The word nityasya has been said with respect of the ‘jiva’ and the second line has “anaashi aprameyasya”  is again said.If this is so then would not it have “puraukti dosha” ? To that Jayatheerhtaru has said, “One most observe that the word ‘nitya’ is more a visheshana for the jiva here and the other two words are for Paramatma. “He is the one who is anAshi in all forms, that is even his body is deathless and He is immeasurable and infinite. So the jiva who is “nitya” obtains its existence by the grace of Paramatma and is the pratibimba of Paramatma.

Next, if the deha is anitya how is the soul nitya?

To that also this verse is the answer. Since the jiva which is the pratibimba of Paramatma if we consider the deha to be the mirror then would not the destruction of the body destroy the soultoo? To that Madhwacharyaru has emphasised that the pratibimba is mirrored in the mirror which is the swaroopa of the jiva itself. The medium of reflection is itself eternal. The word ,”shareerinah” clearly shows that this affection of having persihable form is excluded for Paramatma.

Next the two adjectives for Paramatma -“anaashi” and Aprameya can aslo be used for the jiva in the sense of being like that Paramatma who is “anAshi” and “apramEya” . For example A courageous man maybe referred to ,as a lion. What a lion of a man! But this does not mean the man is the lion but that the man is having some qualities similar to the lion.

Examples for jiva eshwara bbheda


Nine examples are given


  1. a bird which is tied to a pillar using a rope. The bird flies within its mean. It thinks that he can fly . It may not be aware that its area of movement is restricted until it goes to the edge, Then the lenght of the rope determines the circle of freedom. Using these we can understand that the jiva is having a limited capacity to do based on the grace of the Supreme. Depending on their yogyate, they get a chance to do work.
  2. Different trees have different nectars in their flowers, naana vrikshashcha rasah; the word rasas is in plural and the word naana talks of bheda and . The molecule of honey is not aware from where it came. Similarly the jiva does not know from where it came.
  3. the waters of the river fall into the ocean so the water’s become one is the claim of the Monists. But it is not so is true as the actual droplets of water are all there mixed together. We cannot identify them but they exist. It is said that the learned .people/devathas can actually extricate the particular river water from the ocean. so this also talks of bheda only, there is no question of oneness of the jivas or jiva and paramatma.
  4. The tree which grows from the seed.Since the example given has one tree, the monists claim that it tells abheda. But that is not so. The jiva is inside in the tree and he does not want the branches of the tree, but it does dry up partly sometimes and full sometimes. showing that the tree is not independent. “vriksha parou api” As long as some super sustainer is sustaining the tree, it lives, otherwise it falls dead.
  5. yathaa dhaana paraschaiva …The seed of the peepul tree. Shwetaketu completes his education as the gurukula and returns home . Then he feels he is so learned that he doesnt need to prostrate to his father Uddalaka, Then Uddalaka was telling his son to go get a seed and asks Shwetaketa to open the seed and ask him what he see insides. Then Shwetaketu opens it , then when asked what is inside. He says ‘nothing’.He asks him how the tree grows from the seed if there is nothing there. He also tells him that there is a mighty power which can grow a tree from the seed but remains invisible.Just because we cannot see, it does not mean there is noSupreme power which sustains the world.
  6. The Uddalaka asks him to bring a pot of water and a cup of salt. Then he askshim to out the salt inside the pot . He puts it inside and then the next day Uddalaka asks Swetaketu to bring back the salt.Then Swetaketu tries to but there is no salt there. It had all dissolved. He then asks him to taste the water from three levels and Swethaketu finds the salty taste. Paramatma is vyapta everywhere He may not be seen, but He exists and can be experienced if one earnestly tries.
  7. yatha purusha desho chaThe blindfolded man who is taken to a place called Gandhara and sees nothing. The rich blindfolded man is like the ignorant man
  8. One man is about to die in a little while. Thenall his relatives ask him if he can recognize them. But he does not recognize. Why? Because the indriyas have stopped working and he knows nothing . From a day or two ago , there has been a big change.
  9. A theif and the object that he steals. When the king catches him he says “If you hold a hot axe and your hand does not burn then you are not the theif otherwise you are.” Herewhat has to be understand is that there is a difference between the theif and the axe . Similarly the jiva and Paramatma are different always. They aways remain different . Never do they become one.



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