Chapter 2.13

dEhinosmin yataa dehe kauramaarama yauvannam jara

tatah dEhaantara prAptihir dheerastatra na muhyati

To that jiva who is inside a body is referred to as “dehi”. Just as such a soul observes that the body keeps changing with time from baby to adult and old age. So also when the soul changes the body the wise man does not fret or grieve.

Bannanje Gurugalu says, “The lines etched on our palm are not constant. They also keep changing continuously based on our mental activities. But only if we observe it subtly and closely it is possible to know.

The deha has been changing but everyone recollects that it is the continued expereince of one soul only who remembers childhood , youth ,adult expereinces etc.

So clearly the experinecer is not the deha but the soul who has the abhimana for the deha. The very fact that we say, this is my hand, my body and that itself clearly indicates that I am different from my body.

This shloka also clarifies about the anaaditva of the soul. Just as the atma traverses through different stages of body so also the jiva has been moving along in many dehas. This is substantiated through the agaamas. Logic and expereince of some people help to sustain this argument. Some people remember their previous life times in full detail under hypnotic conditions and also otherwise in special cases.

In the bhaashya -“The material body, cannot be the experiencer of the childhood or youth etc. If you do not agree to this then can you answer this question ,”Why is the dead body lying motionless? Why is it not moving about?” The answer usually given is that there was some life force inside which is now not there anymore.

In his commentary with respect to this verse Acharya MAdhwaru aserts that the existence of the jiva is established with the support of the Vedas and hence he substantiates the fact that Vedas are apourusheya and hence completely true and valid.

Why should we believe the Shruthi vaakya is addressed here?

It is because they are “apourusheya” unlike Boudha matas which completely ignore the apourusheya vaakyas. Pourusheya vaakyas usually are liable to carry the defects of understanding by the author in them.

On the other hand if there are unauthored texts then they are eternal truths which are for ever. Acharya Madhwa supports this with many quotes and arguments. In such a scenario the sentences of Pourusheya vaakyas when supported by the apourusheya they obtain a new level of proof which substantiates the thought that the authored texts disclose.

Apurusheya has no possibility to have any defect.

What makes you say that Vedas are apourusheya?

Acharya answers ,” First of all take two possibilities, 1) do you agree that there exists something called apourusheya. Then if the poorvapaksha answers in the negative then he says ,”Then in all darshanas or shastras, philosophies there is no decisive verdict on the dharma and adharma concepts agreeable to all.” Dharma and adharma have been there always. And they are absolute concepts which can be revealed only by eternally existing literature, not something which is composed.If they are authored they would be relative to the author and hence cannot be eternally true.

The main and important question that we face in our spiritual life. Only if there is an atma different from the body we have to worry about the effects of our karma in future and hence strive to achieve better for ourselves through proper use of this time.

dheera- who understand the shastra and then experience it , such people do not feel sad for it.

dheera means one who is very courageous. Knowledge feeds courage. One who has knowledge and has internalised it becomes fearless. So Krishna tells Arjuna to follow the courageous one and become fearless in the face of the death of the bodies of those whom he considers to be his relatives and loved ones.




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