Chapter 2.13

dEhinosmin yataa dehe kauramaarama yauvannam jara

tatah dEhaantara prAptihir dheerastatra na muhyati

To that jiva who is inside a body is referred to as “dehi”. Just as such a soul observes that the body keeps changing with time from baby to adult and old age. So also when the soul changes the body the wise man does not fret or grieve.

Bannanje Gurugalu says, “The lines etched on our palm are not constant. They also keep changing continuously based on our mental activities. But only if we observe it subtly and closely it is possible to know.

The deha has been changing but everyone recollects that it is the continued expereince of one soul only who remembers childhood , youth ,adult expereinces etc.

So clearly the experinecer is not the deha but the soul who has the abhimana for the deha. The very fact that we say, this is my hand, my body and that itself clearly indicates that I am different from my body.

This shloka also clarifies about the anaaditva of the soul. Just as the atma traverses through different stages of body so also the jiva has been moving along in many dehas. This is substantiated through the agaamas. Logic and expereince of some people help to sustain this argument. Some people remember their previous life times in full detail under hypnotic conditions and also otherwise in special cases.

In the bhaashya -“The material body, cannot be the experiencer of the childhood or youth etc. If you do not agree to this then can you answer this question ,”Why is the dead body lying motionless? Why is it not moving about?” The answer usually given is that there was some life force inside which is now not there anymore.

In his commentary with respect to this verse Acharya MAdhwaru aserts that the existence of the jiva is established with the support of the Vedas and hence he substantiates the fact that Vedas are apourusheya and hence completely true and valid.

Why should we believe the Shruthi vaakya is addressed here?

It is because they are “apourusheya” unlike Boudha matas which completely ignore the apourusheya vaakyas. Pourusheya vaakyas usually are liable to carry the defects of understanding by the author in them.

On the other hand if there are unauthored texts then they are eternal truths which are for ever. Acharya Madhwa supports this with many quotes and arguments. In such a scenario the sentences of Pourusheya vaakyas when supported by the apourusheya they obtain a new level of proof which substantiates the thought that the authored texts disclose.

Apurusheya has no possibility to have any defect.

What makes you say that Vedas are apourusheya?

Acharya answers ,” First of all take two possibilities, 1) do you agree that there exists something called apourusheya. Then if the poorvapaksha answers in the negative then he says ,”Then in all darshanas or shastras, philosophies there is no decisive verdict on the dharma and adharma concepts agreeable to all.” Dharma and adharma have been there always. And they are absolute concepts which can be revealed only by eternally existing literature, not something which is composed.If they are authored they would be relative to the author and hence cannot be eternally true.

The main and important question that we face in our spiritual life. Only if there is an atma different from the body we have to worry about the effects of our karma in future and hence strive to achieve better for ourselves through proper use of this time.

dheera- who understand the shastra and then experience it , such people do not feel sad for it.

dheera means one who is very courageous. Knowledge feeds courage. One who has knowledge and has internalised it becomes fearless. So Krishna tells Arjuna to follow the courageous one and become fearless in the face of the death of the bodies of those whom he considers to be his relatives and loved ones.




Bhagavad Gita Chap 2.12

ashOchyAn anvashOchastvam prajnyAAvAdAmscha bhAshase

gatAsUnschagatAsUnscha nAnushOchanti panditAh|

No one should be sad because of someone dying.

Krishna was born 6 months before Arjuna. He said, “There is no question that I was existing even before the 70 years and 6 months from the present. You also existed before the 70 years since you were born.

Think of the point before birth? Think about what happens after death?

We do not know about the above two.

We only know the present time. We do not know from where we came and where are going to?

If one knows about it well and truely then they will never feel overwhelmed with grief.

Krishna say ,”Take me for example whom you know that I am above death. You know that I am above death. Understand that I am above death.”

Not just me, but you too and all the princes,kings gathered here.

Since this is a concept of timelessness, it is difficult to understand and is not in the grasp of our conscious mind or experience. Maybe in the fringes of experiences one does experience a taste of the timeless state.For example : life after life, near death experience, the experience of rebirth in which past birth is vividly remembered.

nityo nityonaam chetanashchetanaanaam.He is the nitya for all nityas and the chetana for all chetanas, The difference about the nityatva of Krishna and chetana shakti of Hari is told in this shruthi vaakya. The nityatva of PAramatma is different from others but the one fact remains that there are many nityas and He is the controller of all these nityas.

Most people find it difficult to understand the concept of timelessness for the soul. The soul is eternal but takes on different forms  which are temporary.

But there is one Supreme who does not have this transmigration, who controls all the others.

ajasya naabhou …. Shruthi says ,” He who has no birth gave birth to the lotus, …

puram ekaadasha dwaaram ajasyaavagrachetasah

The unborn Supreme is the master of this deha and He makes the jiva to reside in the body and then pulls it out , whenever He decides the time is up.

The soul who resides in the body is not the owner of the body and resides in it only till the unborn eternal Supreme decides so. Every birth and death makes sense in view of this, the unborn Supreme controller who is pure existence.

The life does not make any sense if there is no question of one Supreme entity who is the owner of all this and is the most compassionate one who never is born into any deha but is always independently existing on its won always.

This verse also declares that time is not bounded. It is infinite. Jivas exist at all times. The concept of infinite brahmandas and infinite jivas who are all controlled by this one aja who never is born or is never under the control of anyone.

Shri Purandara dasara gadya says,”anantakOTi brahmAnda naayaka”

From this it becomes clear that Bharathiya Vaidika tatva shastra has the opinion that jivas are not created at all. They exist eternally.

The creation process is always continuously there. It will continue always and there is no end to it just as there is no beginning.

This verse also clearly points to the plurality of the souls and the uniqueness of God as One Supreme being. Madhwa siddhaanta’s postulates of one Supreme being, many dependent souls is seen in the gita verse.

Bhagavantha does not create the jiva but He makes it bloom and flower. Whatever the ability of the soul, that is nourished and nurtured by Hari even as a gardener sows a seed and enables its growth by ensuring a suitable environment.

tOTiganu bhUmiyoLu bIjavayoLu bIjava

nATabEkeMdenuta hitadali

mOTeyiM nIretti sasigaLa saMtaisuvaMte

pATu baDadale jagadi jIvara

ghOTakAsyanu sR^ijisi yOgyate

dATagoDadale saluhutippanu saRvakAladali….HKAS_16-12

Sri Jagannatha dasaru proclaims,”The jiva is like a seed sown by a gardener. Just as the gardener just waters and provides an environment to the seed. Yet the seeds grow into different plants bearing sweet, sour or bitter fruits. The water, mud,sun and everything have been consistently the sa,e. He did not pour sweet water into the mango seed neither didi he feed the bittergourd plant with bitter water. The essene of the seed contributes to the fruits it bears.


Bhagavad Gita – 2.1 to 2.4

Let’s look at the second chapter of the Gita Vivrithi.

om laksminArayana natva poorNabOdhAn gurUnapi

kurmaha shri krishna geetAyaha bhAshyAt ….arta sangraham

We saw the Arjuna had discarded his weapons and sat down . Now the chapter opens with Sanjaya’s words. Rayaru says , “He says the answer to the possible quesiton that may have arisen in Dhristarashtra’s mind. ” And to that he says , “After seeing the despondent Arjuna

tam = that arjuna , kripaya – compassion AvishTam – overcome with (which shows his lack of control , it has envoleped him , ahsru – tears , aakula- perturbed , disturbed and ikshanam = with his eyes

Rayaru says , ukta disha … as already said before  From the dhatu – visha pravesha, the aavishTam clearly states that it is a some new thought or feeling that that entered into mind and swamped his actual thoughts and set him in thinking in this directions sending him to depths of grief .

Then Krishna asks of arjuna in two shlokas beginning with ” kutastva as well as  “klaibyam”.

kutah = hetOh what is the reason ?  tva means tvaam-you, vishama- in this dire situation(when he should have been totally enthusiastic to fight he has sat down like a coward- that is described as dire)  kashmalam -mOha- such confused deluded thoughts which are not befitting of Arjuna at all,  mOha means who don’t use their inherent thoughts and are overcome with some temporary wave of a different line. idam – this , samupastitam

anArya jushTam – which is cherished by ajnAnis . The same thing can also be interpreted as Arya  jushTam na  means that which the jNanis do not adopt or do not cherish, aswargyam ,  Further it does not lead you to swarga-aswargyam . Note that the path to be chosen is described first and then its destination is pointed out and finally the defamation of his character is given pointing out the negative aspects of his actions.

In the next verse  Krishna continues to condemn Arjuna’s actions as  “klaibyam – impotence or kAtarya means extreme fear, mAmagamah – na eva prAptu do not let this be your motivation for action,(don’t even think if going near this decision of yours of forsaking the war) , pArtha – You have been born in the lineage of Pritu so you should not do such a thing further you are known as Paratapa – a great warrior.

na upapadyate – it does not suit you

pArtha etat klaibyam na upapadyate..

kshudram – (lAghavam) it is extrememly demeaning  , hrudaya dourbalyam – this weak hearted-ness. He says it is a excessive fear of the outcome.

utishTa – means stand up , here it implies that he should exert himself to discard his mOha and fear and face up to the situation and fight the war as a parantapa – means a true fearless warrior.

After giving such a shock treatment to Arjuna by using such strong words. Instead of addressing any questions which Arjuna had posed in the previous chapter, Krishna has strongly condemned his thoughts and actions.

katam bhIshmam aham saMkye drOnam cha madhusUdanah

ishubhihi pratiyOtsyAm  pUjArhaa varisudhana

saMkye – in the war , katam = how ,ishubhihi- with arrows , pratiyOtsyAmi – fight against them

If one questions why can’t I fight, to that Arjuna seems to be replying…

pUjArhaa – who are eligible to be worshipped by me

You are the killer of foes , but for me you are telling me that not attacking such respectable people is wrong. Killing of the enemy is acceptable but how can it be acceptable to kill the venerable guru and grandfather who are so dear to us.

If somebody raises an objection as ” cha Etat ahanane ” In case I do not kill Bheeshma and Drona then I shall loose my kinddom and my means of livelihood then Arjuna replies to such an objection in the next verse saying…

gurun a hatva hi mahAnubhAvAn shryO bhOktum bhaikshyam apIha lOke

hatva arthakamAnstu bhunjIya bhOgAn rudhirapradigdhAn

a hatva- by not killing gurun= both Bheeshma and Drona are my gurus

They are really respectable, mahAnubhAvan – shAstraanugunavaada bhagavad bhakthi sampannavaada gurugalannu. Who have great devotion toward Paramatma as prescribed by the shastras.

On the other hand if we decide to kill them with the wish to obtain power,wealth and property then we would be enjoying the pleasures that come with such victory but it would be soaked with the blood of these great people.

He affirms that he thinks that it is “shreyas” for him not to kill them . Shreyas means betterment of the soul in the other word and that is definitely out of question meaning it cannot  be obtained by killing these gurus. On the other hand it is quite possible that I will be condemned in the other world for such an act of killing the great gurus . Even in this world I can only be called a greedy person who killed gurus to obtain wealth that is tainted with blood of these great people.

Its not just that I will suffer in these ways but also the fact remains that I will loose their company too. He goes on to assert that instead of doing such a despacable deed he would rather subsist on alms in this world. The very fact that “begging for alms” seems to be a good option is quite an indication of Arjuna’s removal from his right frame of mind. It is quite a drastic alternative which does not befit a warrior and a kshatriya king at any time.

The state of mind of Arjuna is clearly seen by his way of analysing the situation and the  seemingly correct solution to his problems.